Cite this article as:

Знаменская И. И., Апанович В. В., Александров Ю. И. Attitudes Towards Out-Group Members: Ethnocultural Components and Socialization. Izvestiya of Saratov University. Educational Acmeology. Developmental Psychology, 2018, vol. 7, iss. 2, pp. 164-?. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/2304-9790-2018-7-2-164-169


Attitudes Towards Out-Group Members: Ethnocultural Components and Socialization

Abstract: 

The article presents the testing of the hypothesis that in the structure of individual experience, socialization as a form of adaptation to the environment is provided by more differentiated, late-formed systems, in comparison with ethno-cultural traditions and rules. The study involved 185 people, Russians and Kazakhs living on the same territory – in Saratov, Russia and Uralsk, Kazakhstan. They solved moral dilemmas based on the conflict between “us” and “them”, with whom there people have got: experience of everyday interaction (domestic animals), concepts of interaction and/or such experiences (wild animals), no experience of interaction (hypothetical living beings – aliens). On the one hand, it was found that people of one nationality give more similar answers to the dilemmas about dogs, which may be due to rules of interaction with them, prescribed by religion, i.e. ethnocultural traditions; on the other hand, people of different nationalities who were socialized in the same city, give similar, differentiated assessments of the hero’s actions when interacting with hypothetical subjects (aliens) and wild animals, which apparently supports the influence of socialization on the attitude towards these subjects. The data obtained partially support the hypothesis being tested.

References

​1. Aleksandrov Yu. I., Aleksandrova N. L. Sub’ektivny opyt, kul’tura i sotsial’nye predstavleniya [Subjective experience, culture and social attitudes]. Moscow, 2009. 320 p. (in Russian).

2. Panov V. I. Ekopsihologiya: paradigmal’ny poisk [Ecopsychology: the paradigmal search]. Moscow, St. Petersburg, 2014. 296 p. (in Russian).

3. Myasishchev V. N. Psikhologiya otnosheniya [Psychology of attitudes]. Moscow, 2011. 400 p. (in Russian).

4. Zhuravlev A. L., Jurevich A. V. Nravstvennye problemy sovremennoy Rossii (vmesto vvedeniya) [Ethical problems of modern Russia. Instead of preface]. In: Nravstvennost’ sovremennogo rossiyskogo obshchestva [Ethics of modern Russian society]. Eds. A. L. Zhuravlev, A. V. Jurevich. Moscow, 2012, рр. 5–20 (in Russian).

5. Aleksandrov Yu. I., Aleksandrova N. L. Komplementarnost’ kul’tur [The complementarity of cultures]. In: Ot sobytija k bytiyu. Grani tvorchestva G. V. Ivanchenko. Sb. nauch. st. i vospominaniy [From coexistence to existence. Oeuvre of G. V. Ivanchenko]. Compiler M. A. Kozlova. Moscow, 2010, рр. 298–335 (in Russian).

6. Nisbett R., Peng K., Choy I., Norenzajan A. Culture and systems of thought: holistic versus analytic cognition. Psychological review, 2011, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 55–86.

7. Talhem T., Zhang X., Oishi S., Shimin C., Duan D., Lan X., Kitayama S. Large-scale psychological differences within China explained by rice versus wheat agriculture. Science, 2014, vol. 344, no. 6184, pp. 603–608.

8. Arutyunova K. R., Aleksandrov Yu. I., Znakov V. V., Hauser M. D. Moral Judgments in Russian Culture: Universality and Cultural Specifi city. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 2013, vol. 13, no. 3–4, pp. 255–285.

9. Na J., Grossmann I., Varnum M., Kitayama S., Gonzalez R., Nisbett R. Cultural differences are not always reducible to individual differences. Proceedings of the Natinal Academy of the United State of America, 2010, vol. 107, no. 14, pp. 6192–6197.

10. Shvyrkov V. B. Sistemno-evolyutsionnyy podchod k izucheniyu mozga, povedeniya, psichiki i soznaniya [System-Evolutionary Approach Toward Brain, Behavior, Psychics and Consciousness Studying]. Psikhologicheskiy zhurnal [Psychological Journal], 1988, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 132–148 (in Russian).

11. Aleksandrov Yu. I., Svarnik O. E., Znamenskaya I. I., Kolbeneva M. G., Arutyunova K. R., Krylov A. K., Bulava A. I. Regressiya kak etap razvitiya [Regression as a stage of development]. Moscow, 2017. 191 p. (in Russian).

12. Kolbeneva M. G. Psichofi ziologicheskie zakonomernosti initsiiruemoy slovami aktualizatsii individual’nogo opyta raznoy differentsirovannosti [Psychophisiological patterns of iniciated-by-words actualization of subjective experience of different grades of differentiation]. Diss. Cand. Sci. (Psihol.). Moscow, 2013. 185 p. (in Russian).

13. Hamlin J. K., Mahajan N., Liberman Z., Wynn K. Not like me = bad: infants prefer those who harm dissimilar others, Psychological science, 2013, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 589–594.

14. Durkheim E. The division of labour in society. New York, 1947. 466 p. (Russ. ed.: Durkheim E. O razdelenii obshchestvennogo truda. Metod sotsiologii. Moscow, 1991. 575 p.)

15. Porshnev B. F. Sotsial’naya psikhologiya i istoriya [Social Psychology and History). Moscow, 1979. 235 p. (in Russian).

16.Mead M. The arapesh of New Guinea. In: Cooperation and competition among primitive people. New York, London, 1937, pp. 20–50.

17. Hamlin J. K., Wynn K., Bloom P. Three-month-olds show a negativity bias in their social evaluations. Developmental science, 2010, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 923–929.

18. Romanova A. P., Hlyshheva E. V., Jakushenkov S. N., Topchiev M. S. Chuzhoy i kul’turnaya bezopasnost’ [Alien and cultural safety]. Moscow, 2013. 216 p. (in Russian).

19. Allport G. W. The nature of prejudice. Reading, 1958. 537 p.

20. Harris J. R. Where is the child’s environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological review, 1995, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 458–489.

21. Haidt J. The emotional dog and its rational tail: a social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological review, 2001, vol. 108, no. 4, pp. 814–834.

22. Sozinova I. M., Znamenskaya I. I., Aleksandrov Yu. I. Nravstvennoe otnoshenie k «chuzhomu» u detey 3–11 let. Reshenie moral’nyh dilemm: predubezhdeniya i predpochteniya [Moral Attitudes of 3–11 Years Old Children Toward Outgroup Members. Moral Dilemmas Solving: Prejudices and Biases]. Teoreticheskaya i eksperimental’naya psikhologiya [Theoretical and experimental psychology], 2013, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 44–57 (in Russian).

23. Znamenskaya I. I., Sozinova I. M., Aleksandrov Yu. I. Moralnye dilemmy kak instrument psikhologicheskogo issledovaniya [Moral dilemmas as a method of psychological experiments]. In: Protseduri i metodi eksperimentalnopsikhologicheskih issledovaniy [Procedures and methods of experimental psychology studies], Moscow, 2016, pp. 741–747.

24. Varga A. Ya., Fedorovich E. Yu. O psikhologicheskoy roli domashnih pitomtsev v sem’e [Psychological role of pets in family]. Vesti Mosk. gos. obl. un-ta. Ser. Psikhologicheskie nauki [Bulletion of Moscow Region State University. Ser. Psychological Sciences], 2009, no. 1 (3), pp. 22–35 (in Russian).

25. Deryabo S. D. Prirodnyy ob’ekt kak «znachimyy drugoy» [Object of nature as a signifi cant other]. Daugavpils, 1995. 166 p. (in Russian).

26. Shukova G. V. Mezhvidovoe vzaimodeystvie cheloveka i domashnikh zhivotnykh kak predmet ekopsikhologicheskogo issledovaniya [Interspecifi c relations of human and pets as an object of ecopsychological research]. In: Ekopsikhologicheskie issledovaniya – 3: sb. nauch. st. [Ecopsychological researches – 3). Ed. by V. I. Panov. Moscow, St. Peterburg, 2013, pp. 76–109 (in Russian).

27. Shamionov R. M. Gruppovye tsennosti i ustanovki kak prediktory psikhologicheskogo blagopoluchiya russkikh i kazahov (Group Values and Settings as Predictors of Psychological Well-being of Russians and Kazakhs). Psikhologicheskie issledovaniya (Psychological studies), 2014, vol. 7, no. 35, pp. 12. Available at: http://psystudy.ru (accessed 12 December 2017) (in Russian).

28. Hofstede G. The interaction between national and organizational value systems. Journal of management studies, 1985, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 347–357.

29. Vitell S. J., Nwachukwu S. L., Barnes J. H. The effects of culture on ethical decision-making: An application of Hofstede’s typology. Journal of business ethics, 1993, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 753–760.

30. Fernandez D. R. Hofstede’s country classifi cation 25 years later [The journal of social psychology], 1997, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 43–54.

Full text (in Russian):
(downloads: 82)
Short text (in English):
(downloads: 349)