Cite this article as:

Klenova M. A. Ethnic Specificity of Discriminatory Attitudes. Izvestiya of Saratov University. Educational Acmeology. Developmental Psychology, 2019, vol. 8, iss. 2, pp. 157-162. DOI:

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0).

Ethnic Specificity of Discriminatory Attitudes


The goal of the research presented in the article is an empirical study of the specifics of ethnic discriminatory attitudes. The relevance of the study is the necessity to create, basing on theoretical data, the practice-oriented directions and recommendations related to the fact that the existence of discriminatory attitudes is a factor hindering the development of society as harmonious and tolerant and, as a result, it makes impossible the manifestation of social activity of an individual. The empirical study was carried out on 120 people, who were divided into three samples based on ethnicity: Russians – 40 people, Chechens – 40 people, and Turkmen – 40 people. We used a specially designed questionnaire reflecting the level of discriminatory attitudes towards particular groups (migrants, homeless people, people with physical disabilities, disabled persons, people with mental disorders, people with non-traditional sexual behavior, pensioners, children, adolescents, representatives of other ethnic groups, representatives of other religions, crime victims, members of the opposite sex, physically unattractive persons, people who have achieved more than you, people of a different social status (level), people with low income, people with high income, political figures, punks, hippies, representatives of other subcultures, families with many children) (M. V. Grigorieva), and E. Bogardus’s social distance scale. The hypothesis of the study is the assumption that discriminatory attitudes towards each other are expressed in the selected ethnic groups. We established that the overall level of discriminatory attitudes towards the groups identified in the questionnaire is within the limits of average values. At the same time, in the ethnic group of Russians, a higher average value of stereotypical attitude towards the discriminated groups was established. In comparison with representatives of other samples, Russians feel a greater resentment towards migrants and political figures. We established approximately the same and rather high level of discriminatory attitudes in all samples relating to the attitude towards representatives of other nationalities and religions, as well as towards people with non-traditional sexual behavior. It is revealed that respondents in three ethnic samples experience a social distance towards each other in form of acceptance as close relatives.


1.  Shamionov R. M. Formirovaniye diskriminatsionnykh ustanovok lichnosti v protsesse eye sotsializatsii [Formation of Personality’s Discriminatory Attitudes in Process of His/Her Socialization]. Izv. Saratov univ. Nov. ser. Ser. Akmeologiya obrazovaniya. Psikhologiya razvitiya [Izv. Saratov Univ. (N. S.), Ser. Educational Acmeology. Developmental Psychology], 2018, vol. 7, iss. 2, pp. 129–135. DOI: (in Russian).
2.  Bocharova E. E. Soderzhatel’nyye kharakteristiki «predmetnogo polya» diskriminatsionnykh ustanovok [Substantive Characteristics of «Subject Field» of Discriminatory Attitudes]. Vestn. RUDN. Ser. Psikhologiya i pedagogika [PFUR Bulletin, ser. Pedagogic and Psychology], 2018, vol. 15, iss. 4, pp. 308–322. DOI: (in Russian).
3.  Grigor’yeva M. V. Teoreticheskiy analiz problemy realizatsii diskriminatsionnykh ustanovok lichnosti v povedenii [Theoretical Analysis of Problem of Implementation of Personality’s Discriminatory Attitudes in Behavior]. Izv. Saratov univ. Nov. ser. Ser. Filosofi ya. Psikhologiya. Pedagogika [Izv. Saratov Univ. (N. S.), Ser. Philosophy. Psychology. Pedagogy], 2018, vol. 18, iss. 3, pp. 305–310. DOI: (in Russian).
4.  Shamionov R. M. Sootnosheniye diskriminatsionnykh ustanovok i avtoritarizma pravogo tolka [Ratio of Discriminatory Attitudes and Right-Wing Authoritarianis]. Strakhovskiye chteniya: sb. nauch. tr. [Strakhov Reading: collection of research papers], iss. 26. Saratov, 2018, pp. 364–368 (in Russian).
5.  Tarasova L. E. Proyavleniye diskriminatsionnykh ustanovok v povedenii lits s raznym tipom etnicheskoy iden tich nosti [Manifestation of Discriminatory Attitudes in Behavior of Persons with Different Types of Ethnic Identity]. Strakhovskiye chteniya: sb. nauch. tr. [Strakhov Reading: collection of research papers], iss. 26. Saratov, 2018, pp. 303–312 (in Russian).
6.  Klenova M. A. Kharakteristiki ob”yektov diskriminatsionnykh ustanovok v molodezhnoy srede [Characteristics of Discriminatory Attitudes in Youth Environment]. Materialy mezhdunar. nauch.-prakt. konf. «21 vek: fundamental’naya nauka i tekhnologii» [Materials of XVIII Scientifi c and Practical Conference “21 Century: Fundamental Science and Technologies”]. North Charleston, USA, 2018, pp. 111–114 (in Russian).
7.  Neblett Jr E. V., Rivas-Drake D., Umana-Taylor A. J. The Promise of Racial and Ethnic Protective Factors in Promoting Ethnic Minority Youth Development. Child Development Perspectives, 2012, vol. 6, pp. 295–303.
8. Soylu А., Buchanan T. A. Ethnic and Racial Discrimination against Immigrants. Journal of Business and Economics, 2013, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 848–858.
9.  Cavico F. J., Muffl er S. C., Mujtaba B. G. Appearance Discrimination, «Lookism» and «Lookphobia» in the Workplace. Journal of Applied Business Research. Sept/Oct 2012, vol. 28, iss. 5, pp. 791–802.
10. McDonald J. J. Jr. «Lookism»: The Next Form of Illegal Discrimination.  Bloomberg Law Reports, 2010, vol. 4, no. 46, pp. 3–6.
11. Wiener R L., Willborn S. L., eds. Disability and Aging Discrimination. N. Y., 2011. 228 p.
12. Ben-Harush A., Shiovitz-Ezra S., Doron I., Alon S., Leibovitz A., Golander H. Ageism among physicians, nurses, and social workers: fi ndings from a qualitative study. European Journal of Ageing, 2017, vol. 14, iss. 1, pp. 39–48. DOI:
13. Drury B. J., Kaiser Ch. R. Allies against Sexism: The Role of Men in Confronting Sexism. Journal of Social Issues, 2014, vol. 70, no. 4, pp. 637–652. DOI:
14. Sonin  V.  A.  Psikhodiagnosticheskoye poznaniye professional’noy deyatel’nosti [Psycho-diagnostic Knowledge of Professional Activity]. St. Petersburg, 2004. 407 p. (in Russian).
15. Kamenev S. A. Potakaya rezhimu Niyazova, rossiyskiye politiki zakryvayut glaza na diskriminatsiyu sootechestvennikov v Turkmenii [Indulging Niyazov Regime Russian Politicians Turn Blind Eye to Discrimination of Compatriots in Turkmenistan]. Rossiya i musul’manskiy mir [Russia and Moslem World], 2003, no. 8, pp. 71–73 (in Russian).

Full text (in Russian):
(downloads: 339)
Short text (in English):
(downloads: 45)