Cite this article as:

Prygin G. S. Subject Reality as a New Psychological Paradigm. Izvestiya of Saratov University. New Series. Series: Educational Acmeology. Developmental Psychology, 2019, vol. 8, iss. 3, pp. 217-229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18500/2304-9790-2019-8-3-217-229


UDC: 
159.9.01
Language: 
Russian

Subject Reality as a New Psychological Paradigm

Abstract: 

The purpose of the study is to theoretically substantiate one of the possible ways for classical psychology to emerge from methodological crisis, relying on a fundamentally new paradigm that allows creating a holistic concept of psychology. It has been noted that over the last decades, a large number of scientists working in various scientific fields, while addressing the phenomenon of human existence, increasingly pose the following questions: what is reality, what reality does a person live in, is there an “ultimate reality” and how are all these concepts interrelated? The answers to these questions presuppose the construction of philosophical and psychological arguments concerning the «reality.» The concept of reality by S.L. Frank is viewed as such a methodological paradigm remaining within the framework of scientific methods and allowing to give an explanation to those psychic phenomena that still cannot be explained by modern classical psychology. Based on this concept, we can introduce the concept of “subjective reality”, which is understood as the form of (living) reality through which life perceives itself. It has been shown that within subjective reality, a person that is going beyond the limits of objective reality, opens up a completely new dimension of being. In essence, subjective reality represents our “self”, and our true “self-consciousness”. The concepts of «mental» and «spiritual» phenomena are discussed and the need to distinguish between them is emphasized in the study. New concepts of the subject are introduced and discussed. Among them are “the subject as a carrier of reality” and “the subject as an active observer”. It is hypothesized that there are two types of subjectivity, i.e. “external” and “internal” subjectivity. “Internal” subjectivity is defined as experiences and spiritual movements that a person realizes. They arise from within, from the depths of his/her “self” and are aimed at active cognition of the reality existing for him, which he/she calls his “self” (“selfconsciousness”, “self”). Accordingly, “external” subjectivity defines those experiences and spiritual movements that are aimed at active cognition of objective reality, which is external to him/her. At the same time, “internal” subjectivity correlates with the hypostasis of the “subject as the carrier of reality”, while “external” subjectivity correlates with the hypostasis of the “subject as an active observer”.

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